Corinth was a city-state (polis)on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece, roughly halfway between Athens and Sparta. The modern town of Corinth is located approximately 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) northeast of the ancient ruins. Since 1896, systematic archaeological investigations of the Corinth Excavations by the American School of Classical Studies at Athens have revealed a large parts of the ancient city, and recent excavations conducted by the Greek Ministry of Culture have brought important new facets of antiquity to light.
Prehistory and founding myths
Neolithic artifacts show that the site of Corinth had been occupied as early as the fifth millennium BC. According to Hellenic myth, the city was founded by Corinthos, a descendant of the god Helios (the Sun), while other myths suggest that it was founded by the goddess Ephyra, a daughter of the Titan Oceanus, thus the ancient name of the city (also Ephyra). There is evidence that the city was destroyed around 2000 BC.
Before the end of the Mycenaean period (1100 BC), the Dorians attempted to settle in Corinth. While at first they failed, their second attempt was successful when their leader, Aletes, followed a different path around the Corinthian Gulf from Antirio.
Some ancient names for the place, such as Korinthos, derive from a pre-Greek, “Pelasgian” language; it seems likely that Corinth was also the site of a Bronze Age Mycenaean palace-city, like Mycenae, Tiryns, Mycenae or Pylos. According to myth, Sisyphus was the founder of a race of ancient kings at Corinth. It was also in Corinth that Jason, the leader of the Argonauts, abandoned Medea. During the Trojan War, the Corinthians participated under the leadership of Agamemnon.
In a Corinthian myth related in the 2nd century AD to Pausanias, Briareus, one of the Hecatonchires, was the arbitrator in a dispute between Poseidon and Helios,between the sea and the sun: his verdict was that the Isthmus of Corinth belonged to Poseidon and the acropolis of Corinth, Acrocorinth, to Helios. Thus Greeks of the Classical age accounted for archaic cult of the sun-titan in the highest part of the site.(citation needed)
The Upper Peirene spring is located within the walls of the acropolis. “The spring, which is behind the temple, they say was the gift of Asopus to Sisyphus.The latter knew, so runs the legend, that Zeus had ravished Aegina, the daughter of Asopus, but refused to give information to the seeker before he had a spring given him on the Acrocorinthus.” (Pausanias, 2.5.1)
Visit the ancient Corinthian Acropolis, Akrokorinthos, in Corinth, Greece.
This amazing mountain-top fortress has been inhabited
continuously from Archaic times to the early 19th century.
The port of Corinth, located north of the city centre and close to the northwest entrance of the Corinth Canal, at 37 56.0’ N / 22 56.0’ E, serves the local needs of industry and agriculture. It is mainly a cargo exporting facility.
It is an artificial harbour (depth approximately 9 metres (30 ft), protected by a concrete mole (length approximately 930 metres, width 100 metres, mole surface 93,000 m2). A new pier finished in the late 1980s doubled the capacity of the port. The reinforced mole protects anchored vessels from strong northern winds.
Corinth is a major road hub, being the entry point to the Peloponnesian peninsula, the southernmost area of continental Greece.
The city has been connected to the Proastiakos,the Athens suburban rail network, since 2005, when the new Corinth railway station was completed.